EMC Informationist Chair
When appointed the Naval War College’s EMC Chair, I shifted my research activities on maritime security, intelligence, information sharing and defense strategy, and cyber topics. In doing so, I also adopted the term informationist
to characterize my approach. Coined by EMC Vice President Chuck Hollis
, an informationist understands the context
of different kinds of information, the risks
associated with different information types, and the opportunities
associated with unlocking additional value of existing in-formation. Guided by this, my Chair activities are guided by partnership, policy relevance, and transparency.
INTELLIGENCE, NATIONAL SECURITY, AND WAR
The last decade has witnessed substantial changes to U.S. intelligence to include the creation of new institutions such as the National Counterterrorism Center, new organizations such as the Office of Director of National Intelligence, and new doctrine where intelligence drives military operations in combat zones such as Afghanistan. At the same U.S. intelligence has been remade, the United States has also prioritized efforts to share intelligence across state boundaries and develop the intelligence capabilities of other countries. To consider these issues, the EMC Chair at the Naval War College will convene a workshop to address intelligence, national security, and war. Panels will examine successes, challenges, and failures of intelligence in five key areas—policymaking, counterinsurgency, security cooperation counterterrorism, and cyberspace operations. Additionally, keynote addresses will reflect on the many changes to intelligence and consider new directions for the intelligence community.
CHINA AND CYBERSECURITY
China and the United States, the two largest economic powers in the world, depend upon global cyberspace for their economic productivity, social livelihood, and national security. Both gov-ernments and industry have become increasingly concerned about the safety and reliability of their information systems, but there remains great uncertainty about the true nature of risks and the best ways to address them. Western audiences in particular have had little exposure to Chinese perspectives and politics which influence these issues. To better understand these issues, the University of California Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation and the U.S. Naval War College sponsored two workshops that brought together Chinese and Western scholars, policy analysts, and scientists to discuss the political, economic, and strategic dimensions of cybersecurity in China. The research findings are summarized in this report
, span a wide variety of topics and interpretations, as should be expected from a policy issue spanning industrial regulation, law enforcement, military strategy, and civil rights concerns. The report highlights areas of common concern as well as controversy.
OPERATIONALIZING CYBER STRATEGIES
The man-made domain of cyberspace includes revolutionary advances in technology which allow
militaries and civilians alike to use cyberspace operations to achieve objectives. Cyberspace operations have driven changes in the economy and domestic politics in many nations, spread radical ideologies globally in near real time and, in the form of social media, and helped change political power in the Middle East during 2011. Malicious code in the name of Stuxnet was successful in affecting both human and automated decision making in the Iranian nuclear program for a period of time and alerted security officials around the world to the potential challenges in the cyberspace domain.
Cyberspace and the evolving use of this domain drive the need to think differently about the character of twenty-first century warfare. To think through these issues, participants considered:
· How do existing cyber strategies support our military’s ability to engage and prevail in future conflicts ranging from low level, long-term to high intensity operations?
· Have the changes in international security, domestic politics, and the economic, social, demographic, religious, legal conditions of the information age changed the character of future wars? If so, how?
· Do existing theories of war work for 21st Century warfare, or are the changes in the international security environment sufficient to require a new set of theories for conflict in a deeply cybered age?
In the cyber world, individual hackers tend to pose the greatest danger to cyber security, but governments now include cyber war in their planning and operations. The most recent example of this was the cyber attack that accompanied Russia’s invasion of Georgia in 2008. As Russian tanks and aircraft were entering Georgian territory, cyber warriors attacked the Georgian Ministry of Defense. Though it had a minimal effect, the attack was a harbinger; future conflicts will have both a physical dimension and a virtual dimension. As governments and militaries embrace technology for efficiency and effect, they also become vulnerable to cyber threats. With this in mind, the EMC Chair will convene a workshop with experts from academia, policy institutions, the IT industry, and the military to consider the evolution of threats to cyberspace, discuss methods to defend cyberspace, place cyber operations in the context of international law, and debate visions of cyberwar
COMBINED JOINT OPERATIONS FROM THE SEA CENTRE OF EXCELLENCE LISBON, PORTUGAL MAY 2010
In cooperation with NATO's maritime center of excellence, Derek Reveron conducted a panel on current practices, challenges, and successes of implementing a comprehensive approach for maritime security in Lisbon. The panel was a part of a three-day program that brought together about 190 participants from 26 countries. The program was designed to share ideas and best practices to improve collaboration. The senior U.S. Naval officer in attendance was Admiral Mark Fitzgerald who is triple-hatted as Naval Forces Africa, Naval Forces Europe, and Allied Joint Force Command Naples. Using the EMC Chair endowment, faculty from the National Security Decision Making Department and the Strategy and Policy Department participated in the conference proceedings.
In support of the Naval War College's international Programs, the EMC Chair convened two lectures and two panels on information sharing. The lectures discussed the challenges associated with improving information sharing and trends in global maritime security. Building on the lectures, the two panels facilitated discussion of these critical topics among Naval War College alumni from eleven countries. The first panel was composed of three Naval Command College graduates coming from Chile, Colombia, and Italy. The second panel was composed of U.S. Officers with program authority and goals of improving information sharing. The program provided the context the War Gaming Department to conduct table top exercises.
The U.S. Naval War College and the Atlantic Council jointly sponsored a conference on the challenges and opportunities for maritime security cooperation. The conference examined the drivers of maritime insecurity, assessed ongoing coalition maritime operations, shared lessons learned from maritime security actors and identified challenges to and opportunities for cooperation. These challenges include: policy, technical, cultural and legal aspects. Additionally, there was a special emphasis on information sharing in operations and maritime domain awareness.
In concert with US Southern Command, US Embassy Bogotá, and the Colombian Ministry of Defense, the EMC Chair convened a three-day strategic intelligence symposium. The symposium had three main objectives. First, analyze strategic intelligence challenges of the future. Next, reinforce information sharing relationships across Colombia’s intelligence community and US Southern Command. Finally, provide an intellectual framework to develop a national intelligence strategy for Colombia
In an effort to comprehend and analyze challenges to intelligence cooperation in the Hemi-sphere, US Naval Forces South/U.S. Fourth Fleet hosted a US Naval War College workshop on intelligence and maritime security. The EMC Chair convened representatives from DOD, the interagency, industry, and international partners to discuss ways to improve information sharing in the face of legal, policy, cultural, and technical challenges.